|Moreover, many of them provide evidence of embellishment and invention that were introduced to serve the purposes of political or religious apologetic||El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p|
|Denis Gril, Miracles, , Brill, 2007||however, there is no relevant archaeological, epigraphic, or numismatic evidence dating from the time of Muhammad, nor are there any references to him in non-Muslim sources dating from the period before 632|
"Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• 137 Netanel's work was virtually unknown beyond his native Yemen until modern times, so had little influence on later Jewish thought• Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition 1970 , p.
|These sources contain internal complexities, anachronisms, discrepancies, and contradictions|
|Lapidus 2002 , pp 0|
5, "One major challenge to examining initial contacts between Byzantium and the early Muslim umma arises from the controversy surrounding the traditional Islamic account.19